Land surveying is the set of tasks that are performed to measure and record properties. The survey process can be done in various ways, depending on the type of land being surveyed. You can work with a professional surveyor to make sure your building is constructed on a stable foundation. This article discusses three common types of land surveying.
1. Topographic Surveying
These surveys involve measuring elevations with a device called an altimeter or hypsometer from both natural and artificial features such as trees, buildings, roads, and other structures. It uses the shape and position of land to determine property boundaries.
Surveyors begin their work at a known point near one end of the survey area's boundary line. They place a compass on this starting location and ensure it points north. From there, lines are marked out using flags or nails, which section off an area into smaller chunks. Each chunk is measured along its east-west axis from left to right. This information is then plotted out on a map or drawn onto paper using pencils and rulers. The process for topographic surveying is usually repeated in sections until the entire boundary line has been mapped out.
2. Construction Surveying
Construction surveys are a type of survey that is typically done before a construction project. They determine how many feet it will take to lay down sidewalks, parking lots, and roadways. If you plan on having an excavation or retaining wall built within your property lines, you'll need this type of survey to know what area needs digging and where it must stop. Construction surveys should always be completed before any kind of building permit is issued from the local municipality.
3. Floodplain Mapping
Floodplain mapping helps to map out areas that are at risk for flooding so they can be avoided. Floodplain maps contain essential information, including where rivers or streams flow into a body of water with their confluences as well as other surrounding properties such as buildings, roads, bridges, and parks. They also have elevation markers that indicate how high the water may rise in an area during severe weather events like floods or hurricanes. The safe travel routes to take in any emergency situation are also typically included in these maps.
The data collected during the floodplain mapping process is usually kept up to date and used when insurance companies need them to determine rates or if someone wants to build a house. A surveyor can check this data for you with local government agencies so you don't build property in an area that may put it at risk of possible flooding.
Land surveying is the foundation of many other projects, including new buildings and construction. They help to protect people's property rights and safety. It should be performed by professional surveyors who have the required tools and knowledge to do the job and understand local laws regarding property lines.